Heklanje 84 : Uskršnja jaja :-)

Lupila me isnpiracija, ali totalno 😉
Isheklala sam uskršnja jaja, i izvezla ih sa cvetićima i sličnim simpatičnim stvračicama.
Napunila sam ih ili vatom (ona obična, iz radnje), ili punjenjem iz jednog jastuka, koji se totalno raspao, pa sam iskoristilia njegovo punjenje 🙂
Dakle slatka heklana Uskršnja jaja :

Pa tri jajeta koja sam prvo uradila, sva zajedno :

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Solaris OS 5 – osnovne komande

Interesuju me komande koje daju osnovno stanje sistema po pitanju potrošnje memorije i CPU-a.
U principu me najviše interesuju istorijski podaci (pošto nemamo SAR komandu na sistemu).
Odličan link (paziti, ne poklapa se baš sa verzijama komandi na mom sistemu, ali ajde).
Rosetta stone za UX OS-ove : link.

iostat
Daje gomilu podataka o CPU, memoriji i diskovima, ali sve u datom trenutku. Najviše podataka daje za diskove.
Za CPU iskorišćenje (kod mene je samo 1CPU) :
> iostat -c
cpu
us sy st id
3 1 0 96

vmstat
Za memoriju i swap iskorišćenje (ove dato da izbacuje podatke svakih 5sec) :
> vmstat 5
kthr memory page disk faults cpu
r b w swap free re mf pi po fr de sr vc vc vc vc in sy cs us sy id
0 0 44 15253800 4706808 1208 1912 1 0 0 0 0 14 0 7 0 5566 10386 8126 3 1 96
0 0 288 25980264 1701360 616 3460 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 31 0 7298 14632 10614 2 4 95
0 0 288 26045200 1728968 6 207 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 75 3 6817 4796 7824 1 2 97
0 0 288 26136872 1780064 389 1181 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 6507 6734 8372 4 1 94
0 0 288 26201928 1817648 454 1440 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5883 6504 7400 1 1 98
Ako se doda svič “-T” dodaće i timestamp (“d” označava format za vreme) :
> vmstat -T d 5
Fri Mar 23 12:52:36 CET 2018
kthr memory page disk faults cpu
r b w swap free re mf pi po fr de sr vc vc vc vc in sy cs us sy id
0 0 44 15253856 4706792 1208 1912 1 0 0 0 0 14 0 7 0 5566 10386 8126 3 1 96
Fri Mar 23 12:52:41 CET 2018
0 0 288 26312536 1857504 321 986 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 31 0 6703 6512 7755 4 1 95
Fri Mar 23 12:52:46 CET 2018
0 0 288 26312928 1858120 1245 4624 0 0 0 0 0 27 0 19 0 6412 17122 8015 2 4 94

mpstat
Problem je što vidi SVE CPU-ove koji su na host mašini. A meni je Solaris VM 🙁

prstat
Donekle pandan za Unix/Linux top komandu, prikazuje listu procesa.
If you do not specify an option, prstat examines all processes and reports statistics sorted by CPU usage.

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WebLogic (Oracle) i HTTP logovi

WebLogic HTTP log je (po default-u) access.log, i on se može konfigurisati ili kao “COMMON” ili kao “EXTENDED” log format.
*****
COMMON log format je definisan i takav je kakav je. Izgleda ovako :
10.xx.xx.xx – velda [22/Mar/2018:13:21:04 +0100] “POST /ogroman-URL e-Id=1 HTTP/1.1” 200 95168
Daje sasvim dovoljnu količinu podataka :
IP adresu klijentske mašine, username, date+time, izvršenu akciju (POST u ovom slučaju), URL kome je klijent prišao, HTTP “reakcija” browser-a, I količina razmenjenih bajtova (95168 ovde)
*****
EXTENDED log format dozvoljava da se dodaju (i oduzimaju) stavke, i teoretski bi trebalo da daje veću količinu podataka vezanih za logovanje, ali na žalost se u ovoj konstelaciji kroz njega ne može dobiti jedan od osnovnih podataka, a to je username korisnika koji se kači na sistem. Takođe se i vrsta browser-a koji korisnik koristi dobija JAKO uvijeno (pa je potreban log parser za tumačenje) :
10.xx.xx.xx – 2018-03-21 14:09:27 GET 200 “Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/64.0.3282.186 Safari/537.36” 0.492 1013
Tamo gde je “-” trebalo bi da piše username korisnika. Grrrrr.
A kao korisnički browser se dobija gomila đubreta koja se mora provući kroz log parser da bi imala smisla.
Evo kako izgledaju elneki ementi extended log formata, i u zagradama rezultati koje daju u samom logu :
c-ip – IP adresa klijentskog računara (10.xx.xx.xx)
cs-username – The name of the authenticated user that accessed the server. Anonymous users are indicated by a hyphen. (-)
date – (2018-03-21)
time – (12:25:36)
cs-method – šta je urađeno u smislu komande (POST, GET etc)
cs-uri – URL
sc-status – HTTP status, odgovor servera (302)
cs(User-Agent) – browser korisnika (“Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/64.0.3282.186 Safari/537.36”)
s-sitename – (-)
s-port – (-)
time-taken vreme trajanja akcije (0,29)
sc-substatus – (-)
cs-host – (-)
cs-version – (-)
bytes – utrošeni bajtovi (481)
ctx-ecid – besmisleno (81sbg1a5-30fc-478a-a95c-18beb3fz5bb0-00002046)
ctx-rid – (0)

C – sa strane klijenta
s – sa strane server
cs – od klijenta ka server
sc – od server ka klijentu

Nekoliko odličnih linkova :
Enable and configure HTTP logs under Oracle WebLogic : link1
Šta sve može da se stavi pod “Extended” HTTP logs : link2 + link3

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Heklanje 83 : šarene čarape :-)

Uživala sam dok sam ih pravila 🙂

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Heklanje 82 : crvena kapa

Lepa crvena kapa koja čvrsto pokriva uši (meni su uši jako osetljive na hladnoću), i skuplja se heklanom trakom na vrhu, a sa strane isheklani brqaon cvetić sa drvenim perlicama kao ukras :

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Kako videti stanje na udaljenom serveru? A bez RD-a!

Ima set Microsoft alata koji su prosto genijalni za to.
Zovu se PSTools, i mogu se skinuti odavde (free su).
Dobije se ZIP fajl. Ja sam ga raspakovala u folder na C: particiji, i onda taj folder dodala u PATH varijablu, tako da alate bez problema prizivam iz komandne linije (cmd).
Tu je gomila alata :
PsExec – execute processes remotely
PsFile – shows files opened remotely
PsGetSid – display the SID of a computer or a user
PsInfo – list information about a system
PsPing – measure network performance
PsKill – kill processes by name or process ID
PsList – list detailed information about processes
PsLoggedOn – see who’s logged on locally and via resource sharing (full source is included)
PsLogList – dump event log records
PsPasswd – changes account passwords
PsService – view and control services
PsShutdown – shuts down and optionally reboots a computer
PsSuspend – suspends processes
PsUptime – shows you how long a system has been running since its last reboot
Kako dodati folder sa ovim komandama u PATH varijablu videti iz mog ranijeg posta.
Pošto radim u domenskom okruženju, dovoljno je da CMD otvorim kao domenski korisnik (pošto sam admin :-)), i da pokrenem alat psinfo, i eto mi podataka i slobodnom prostoru na diskovima, a bez RD-a :
#######################################
C:\PSTools>psinfo \\ime.mog.servera -d
…..
Querying information for moj.server…Connecting to moj.server..
System information for \\moj.server:
Uptime: 72 days 17 hours 20 minutes 9 seconds
Kernel version: Windows Server (R) 2008 Standard, Multiprocessor Free
Product type: Server
Product version: 6.0
Service pack: 2
Kernel build number: 6002
Registered organization:
Registered owner: Windows User
IE version: 7.0000
System root: C:\Windows
Processors: 2
Processor speed: 2.3 GHz
Processor type: Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2630 v3 @
Physical memory: 4096 MB
Video driver: VMware SVGA 3D
Volume Type Format Label Size Free Free
A: Removable 0.0%
C: Fixed NTFS 80.00 GB 527.59 MB 0.6%
D: Fixed NTFS New Volume 40.00 GB 29.34 GB 73.3%
E: CD-ROM 0.0%
#######################################
Genijalno 🙂
Ako ne podignem CMD kao domen admin, može se u komandu ubaciti user+pass :
psinfo [[\\computer[,computer[,..] | @file [-u user [-p psswd]]] [-h] [-s] [-d] [-c [-t delimiter]] [filter]

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WIN 2003 server (matoro!!!) i IIS logovanje

Naći WIN logove koji daju NEKE podatke je UMETNOST.
Odličan link po ovom pitanju.

1. Logovi Web Site-a
Otvorite IIS Manager :

Desni klik i properties :

I videti GDE su tačno logovi :

2. Logovi pristupa pojedinačnim folderima aplikacije :

Pa opet desni klik na ime aplikacije, stavka Properties, i videti da li je omogućeno logovanje poseta folderu :

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MCSA 70-412 i nove skraćenice (uzdah)

JEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE položila sam MCSA 70-411!!!
I sada naravno idemo dalje 🙂

Sada me čeka JOŠ skraćenica. Da čovek ne poveruje. Uzdah.

AD CS – AD certificate services
AD FS – Active Directory federation services
AD RMS – Active Directory Rights Management Service, encryption for MS Office documents, file access and auditing for domain-based file servers. This is DAC.
ADSI – AD service interfaces Editor, allows the viewing of EVERY object in AD forest (adsiedit.mcs)
BCD – Boot configuration data, a BCD store is a set of configuration files that describe an OS boot applications and settings (BCDEdit.exe)
ARS – automatic system recovery
BMR – bare-metal restore
BYOD – bring your own device
CA – certification authority
CAU – Cluster-aware updating
CDP – CRL distribution points
COM – Component object model
CRL – certification revocation list
CSP – cryptographic service provider
CSV – cluster shared volumes
DAC – dynamic access control
DCM – Desired Configuration Manager, option in Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager 2012, it ia a validation tool for patches
DFSR – distributed file system replication
DNSSEC – DNS security extensions
DoS – denial of service attack (DNS)
DPM – Data Protection Manager, disk-and-tape based data protection and recovery for all computers in AD domain
DR – Disaster recovery
DRP – disaster recovery plan
DRS – device registration service
DSRM – Directory services restore mode (available only on a DC)
DUID – device unique identifier, used to get a DHCP IPv6 address for a client
ECC – eclyptic curve cryptography
EFS – Encrypted file system
FSRM – file server resource manager, enables quotas on folders or volumes, filter file types and enables creation of detailed storage reports
GC – global catalog, a domain controller that has a copy of all the objects in the forest DCs (all of the schema information and more). At least one must exist in each domain.
GPO – Group Policy Object
GPMC – Group policy management console, used for the backup of all GPOs at once
GUM – global update manager, sends updates to local DBs of cluster nodes about cluster configuration
IETF – Internet engineering task force
IPAM – IP address management
iSCSI – Internet small computer system interface, it is a Internet protocol for connecting computer to a storage
iSNS – Internet storage name service, central registration of iSCSI targets
KCC – knowledge consistancy checker, service responsible for determening the best way to replicate information within sites
KDC – key distribution center
KSP – key storage provider MADCAP – multicast address dynamic client allocation protocol
MBR – master boot record
MMC – Microsoft Management Console
MPIO – Microsoft Multipath I/O, multipath software
MSM – multiserver management
MTBF – mean time between failures
MTTR – mean time to recovery
NFS – network file system
NLB – network load balancing, one of two clustering options in MS WIN 2012
NSEC – next secure record
NTLM – Microsoft authentication protocol
OCSP – online certificate status protocol, a lightweight HTTP protocol
PRP – password replication policy, determines which user’s credentials may be cached on a specific RODC (by default, none)
PSO – Password settings objects
RE – recovery environment
RPC – remote procedure call, a protocol that is used for communication between Domain Controllers
RPO – Recovery Point Objective, a amount of data that must be restored in the event of failure (in minutes or hours)
RRSIG – resource record signature, DNS zone signing result
RTO – Recovery Time Objective, the length of time as service can be unavailable before it must be restored to meet the SLA.
SLA – Service Level Agreement, expressed in percetage of time that the service is unavailable
SMTP – simple mail transfer protocol, used for DC communication over unreliable WANs
SNI – server name indication
SSO – single sign-on
SPN – Service Prinicipal Name
TMP – Trusted Platform Module
UGMC – universal group membership caching, caching the reply from a Global Catalog server for 8h, it is used ONLY for user authentication. It happens at site level.
UPN – User Principal Name suffix that appears after the „@“ symbol. By default it is the domain in which the user is created.
USN journal – update sequence numbers for updating changes, used in DFSR
VHD – virtual hard disk
VSS – volume snapshot service (shadowcopy), allows a backup of shared folders to a remote location (backs up open files also)
WID – Windows internal database
WIF – Windows identity foundation, a claim-based identity framework. It is a set of .NET Framework classes.
Windows PE – Windows preinstallation environment
Windows RE – Windows recovery environment
WSFC – Windows server failover clustering
ZSK – zone signing key – cryptographic key used to sign individual host records in a DNSSEC DNS zone.

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Zabbix i SNMP praćenje diskova na WIN 2008 serveru

WIN 2008 server
1. Instalirati servis na WIN 2008 (to je u stvari “Feature”)
2. Restartovati WIN server (da bi se omogućila konfiguracija SNMP servisa)
3. Konfigurisati SNMP servis (dodeliti community, definisati koji je SNMP/Zabbix server, dati SAMO read-only prava)

Zabbix server – osnovno
1. Ubaciti novi server u odgovarajuću grupu (ako grupa ne postoji, kreirati je pri kreiranju hosta). Definisati da je u pitanju SNMP komunikacija :

Obavezno definisati i IP i domenski naziv servera!
2. Definisati odgovarajuće templejte (odličan link). Ja sam za moj WIN server stavila jedan : “Template SNMP OS Windows”
3. Sačekati oko 2h dok se ne prikupe inicijalni podaci (to je najbolje posmatrali pod “Monitoring”/”Latest Data” i odabrati željeni server; dobar link za ovo).

Zabbix server – definisanje okidača i grafika
SNMP ne prepoznaje zauzetu količinu mesta na disku, pa moram da se zezam sa MIB browser-om da vidim tačan naziv.
Ovaj ManageEngine ne valja, neće ni da se pokrene kako treba.
Ovaj od ireasoning-a bar radi, ja sam uzela (naravno) free edition.
Javlja se i greška u logovima WIN 2008 :
“The SNMP Event Log Extension Agent does not initialize correctly ”
Za šta postoji hotfix ovde.

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SQL baza – struktura

Odličan link o strategiji, dizajniranju i formiranju baze.
Kratko i dobro objašnjenje osnova kroz youtube tutorial.

Primary Key
Each table should have a column (or a set of columns), called primary key, that uniquely identifies every records of the table. A primary key is called a simple key if it is a single column; it is called a composite key if it is made up of several columns. Most RDBMSs build an index on the primary key to facilitate fast search and retrieval. The primary key is also used to reference other tables. The primary key shall always have a value. In other words, it shall not contain NULL.
A table can have only one primary key.
Dakle to je bila teorija.
U praksi, kada se kreira table (u toku kreiranja ili posle) potrebno je definisati primary key. Dobar link.
A primary key cannot be applied on a column with a null constraint (nullable). When a table is created, by default every column is nullable (link).
So first off all we have to remove the null constraint and apply a NOT NULL constraint on the column :
ALTER TABLE spisak alter column rednibroj int NOT NULL;
Pa onda dešinišemo kolonu “rednibroj” kao primary key tabele “spisak” :
ALTER TABLE spisak ADD PRIMARY KEY (rednibroj);

Kako izlistati primarne klučeve u tabeli :
SELECT * FROM information_schema.table_constraints
WHERE constraint_type = ‘Primary Key’ and TABLE_NAME = ‘spisak’;
Priznajem da je izlaz ovog upita prilično neupotrebljiv…..

Views (link)
A view is nothing more than a SQL statement that is stored in the database with an associated name. A view is actually a composition of a table in the form of a predefined SQL query.
Database views are created using the CREATE VIEW statement. Views can be created from a single table, multiple tables or another view.
The INFORMATION_SCHEMA views allow you to retrieve metadata about the objects within a database :
SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES;
Što za moju testnu tabelicu daje ovo :

Dobar link vezan za INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES.

You could create index on selected column(s) to facilitate data searching and retrieval. An index is a structured file that speeds up data access for SELECT, but may slow down INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE

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