MCSA 70-412 i nove skraćenice (uzdah)

JEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE položila sam MCSA 70-411!!!
I sada naravno idemo dalje 🙂

Sada me čeka JOŠ skraćenica. Da čovek ne poveruje. Uzdah.
CAU – Cluster-aware updating
CSV – cluster shared volumes
DCM – Desired Configuration Manager, option in Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager 2012, it ia a validation tool for patches
DR – Disaster recovery
GUM – global update manager, sends updates to local DBs of cluster nodes about cluster configuration
MPIO – Microsoft Multipath I/O, multipath software
MTBF – mean time between failures
MTTR – mean time to recovery
NLB – network load balancing, one of two clustering options in MS WIN 2012
NTLM – Microsoft authentication protocol
RPO – Recovery Point Objective, a amount of data that must be restored in the event of failure (in minutes or hours)
RTO – Recovery Time Objective, the length of time as service can be unavailable before it must be restored to meet the SLA.
SLA – Service Level Agreement, expressed in percetage of time that the service is unavailable

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Zabbix i SNMP praćenje diskova na WIN 2008 serveru

WIN 2008 server
1. Instalirati servis na WIN 2008 (to je u stvari “Feature”)
2. Restartovati WIN server (da bi se omogućila konfiguracija SNMP servisa)
3. Konfigurisati SNMP servis (dodeliti community, definisati koji je SNMP/Zabbix server, dati SAMO read-only prava)

Zabbix server – osnovno
1. Ubaciti novi server u odgovarajuću grupu (ako grupa ne postoji, kreirati je pri kreiranju hosta). Definisati da je u pitanju SNMP komunikacija :

Obavezno definisati i IP i domenski naziv servera!
2. Definisati odgovarajuće templejte (odličan link). Ja sam za moj WIN server stavila jedan : “Template SNMP OS Windows”
3. Sačekati oko 2h dok se ne prikupe inicijalni podaci (to je najbolje posmatrali pod “Monitoring”/”Latest Data” i odabrati željeni server; dobar link za ovo).

Zabbix server – definisanje okidača i grafika
SNMP ne prepoznaje zauzetu količinu mesta na disku, pa moram da se zezam sa MIB browser-om da vidim tačan naziv.
Ovaj ManageEngine ne valja, neće ni da se pokrene kako treba.
Ovaj od ireasoning-a bar radi, ja sam uzela (naravno) free edition.
Javlja se i greška u logovima WIN 2008 :
“The SNMP Event Log Extension Agent does not initialize correctly ”
Za šta postoji hotfix ovde.

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SQL baza – struktura

Odličan link o strategiji, dizajniranju i formiranju baze.
Kratko i dobro objašnjenje osnova kroz youtube tutorial.

Primary Key
Each table should have a column (or a set of columns), called primary key, that uniquely identifies every records of the table. A primary key is called a simple key if it is a single column; it is called a composite key if it is made up of several columns. Most RDBMSs build an index on the primary key to facilitate fast search and retrieval. The primary key is also used to reference other tables. The primary key shall always have a value. In other words, it shall not contain NULL.
A table can have only one primary key.
Dakle to je bila teorija.
U praksi, kada se kreira table (u toku kreiranja ili posle) potrebno je definisati primary key. Dobar link.
A primary key cannot be applied on a column with a null constraint (nullable). When a table is created, by default every column is nullable (link).
So first off all we have to remove the null constraint and apply a NOT NULL constraint on the column :
ALTER TABLE spisak alter column rednibroj int NOT NULL;
Pa onda dešinišemo kolonu “rednibroj” kao primary key tabele “spisak” :
ALTER TABLE spisak ADD PRIMARY KEY (rednibroj);

Kako izlistati primarne klučeve u tabeli :
SELECT * FROM information_schema.table_constraints
WHERE constraint_type = ‘Primary Key’ and TABLE_NAME = ‘spisak’;
Priznajem da je izlaz ovog upita prilično neupotrebljiv…..

Views (link)
A view is nothing more than a SQL statement that is stored in the database with an associated name. A view is actually a composition of a table in the form of a predefined SQL query.
Database views are created using the CREATE VIEW statement. Views can be created from a single table, multiple tables or another view.
The INFORMATION_SCHEMA views allow you to retrieve metadata about the objects within a database :
SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES;
Što za moju testnu tabelicu daje ovo :

Dobar link vezan za INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES.

You could create index on selected column(s) to facilitate data searching and retrieval. An index is a structured file that speeds up data access for SELECT, but may slow down INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE

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Kreiranje MS SQL testne bazice i security nad bazama

Opšte stavke :
You can do only three things with any database object, other than actually use it; you can create it, alter it, or drop it to get rid of it.
Unless permissions are explicitly assigned, only members of the following roles can execute these statements :
sysadmin
dbcreator
db_ddladmin
db_owner
Database roles (also referred to as database-level roles) are security roles that exist on a database level, as opposed to the server level. There are two kinds of database roles in SQL Server : fixed roles and flexible roles.
Fixed roles automatically exist in each database. Adding a user to one of these roles will not change that user’s permissions in any other database.
Fixed roles that are available in SQL Server :
db_owner – users in the db_owner role have it all, within a single database.
db_securityadmin – users can modify role permissions and manage permissions.
db_accessadmin – users have the ability to change database access.
db_backupoperator
db_ddladmin
db_datawriter
db_datareader
db_denydatawriter
db_denydatareader
Public – By default, the VIEW ANY DATABASE permission is granted to the public role.
You should never use the SA (system administrator) account for connecting from a web application.
Fixed roles automatically exist in each database. Adding a user to one of these roles will not change that user’s permissions in any other database.

Kako se vide svi korisnici nad nekom bazom (kod mene nema dodatnih, sve je default) :

Link vezan za bezbednost.

1. Kreirati bazu – desni klik na stavku “Databases”/New Database, pa popuniti stavke (ime baze, gde će da budu fajlovi baze i logovi baze, kako će se isti zvati, kako će im biti dozvoljno da radu, itd)
2. Kreirati tabelu (namestiti se na testnu bazu) :
create table spisak (
rednibroj int,
ime text,
prezime text,
sprat integer,
kancelarija integer
);
Ovime se dobija nova (prazna) tabela :

3. Ubaciti podatke u napravljenu tabelu (radi se kao “New Query”) :
insert into spisak (rednibroj, ime, prezime, sprat, kancelarija)
values (‘1’, ‘Vesna’, ‘Petrovic’, ‘1’, ‘110’);
Gde je “spisak” ime tavele, a (rednibroj, ime, prezime, sprat, kancelarija) su nazivi kolona u tabeli.
4. Kako pregledati sadržaj unesen u tabelu :
use veldatest;
select * from spisak;
U prvom redu naglašavamo koju bazu koristimo za upit.

Odličan tutorial za SQL komande (sa primerima).

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SQL upiti kroz MS SQL SMS (1)

Pre nego što počnemo sa upitima, zgodno je usmeriti taj upit ka određenoj bazi (po default-u, to je DB master). Postoje dva načina da se to uradi :
1.
2. Ukucati unutar upita : USE ime-baze-koja-se-koristi

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Početno podešavanje za MS SQL SMS

Ići na Tools/Options i podesiti neke osnovne stavke :
*Veličina slova (ja volim da su malo veća)

*Numeracija linija (uvek zgodno!)

*Automatsko završavanje pisanja komandi (da ne moram ja da kucam sve to) :

Dobar youtube link za podešavanja.

Dodavanje komentara :
*Ako je komentar od jedne linije : samo na početak reda staviti dva uzastopna minusa : —
*Ako je komentar od više redova, na početak komentara staviti kosu crtu i zvezdicu : /* a kad je komentar gotov na kraj staviti zvezdicu i kosu crtu : */

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SQL 2008 greške pri instalaciji

Unable to start T-SQL Debugging. Could not connect to computer (“*”).
Pošto moja VM nije u domenu (sem sopstvenom), ovo se rešava tako što SQL SMSS pokrećem kao administrator 🙂

Database diagram support objects cannot be installed because this database does not have a valid owner. To continue, first use the Files page of the Database Properties dialog box or the ALTER AUTHORIZATION statement to set the database owner to a valid login, then add the database diagram support objects.
To mi se javilo čim sam uradila “restore” neke bazice.
Pokrenem SQL SMSS kao Administrator, logujem se kao “sa” (DB admin kreiran pri instalaciji MS SQL 2008 servera), i uradim “New Query” :
ALTER AUTHORIZATION ON DATABASE::ime-moje-bazice TO sa;
I to je izgleda rešilo problem.
Dobar link po ovom pitanju.

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SQL za početnike, instalacija SQL 2008 na WIN 2012 R2

Dakle moj novi radni zadatak 🙂
Treba da naučim SQL, pa ću ovde da stavljam linkove, crtice, nepomene…..
A pošto ja nemam pojma, ovo je skroz za početnike 😉

SQL is a language for accessing databases. It can add tables/rows/columns, data, and do queries.
Normalization1 – po jedna vrednost u jednoj ćeliji kolone, i to vezana za primary key
Normalization2 – razdvajanje jedne tabele u dve, tako da se u tabelama ne ponavljaju iste vrednosti u više kolona/ćelija. Te dve tabele moraju imati jedinstvene ključeve koji ih povezuju (primary key)
Normalization3 – no redundant data
Normalization4
Čemu “normalizacija”? Pa zato jer relaciona DB ne može u tabeli da sadrži duplicirane redove.
Relaciona baza – baza u kojoj se lako povezuju podaci, MS SQL, Oracle, MySQL……
Tabela u bazi UVEK mora da ima “primary key”, i to je jedinsveni podatak u celoj tabeli, i to je takođe karakteristika svih RDB-ova.

Youtube link za MS predavanje o SQL-u, na nivou baza.
Youtube basic SQL queries.

Da ne bih prčkala po postojećim bazama (makar bile i testne) uradila sam sledeće :
1. Podigla VM WIN 2012 R2
2. ISKLJUČILA FIREWALL na njemu (ako ostane “on” može da daje VRLO čudne probleme)
3. Instalirala .Net FW 3.5 (to kao uslov zahteva SQL server 2008), ovo mora kroz Server Manager ili CMD (kao Administrator).
Tu treba mount-ovati WIN 2012 R2 instalaciju, i to koristiti. Nije mi išlo iz Server Manager-a (Install Roles and Features), tako da sam morala iz komandne linije (ISO je mount-ovan na F:) :
dism /online /enable-feature /featurename:NetFX3 /all /Source:f:\sources\sxs /LimitAccess

Dobar link po ovom pitanju.
4. Instalirala MS SQL Server 2008 SE (testno)
Tu se postavi ISO fajl, klikne se na njega i on se automatski mount-uje, pa se ise na setup.exe fajl.
5. Proveriti jel se podiglo (posle restarta servera) : “server manager”/Tools/Services
6. Uraditi Windows Update, pa resetovati server (ponovo). Control Panel/Windows Update (obavezno staviti i za SWindows i za sve ostale Microsoft proizvode!)
7. Kopirati neku malu bazu, i uraditi njen “Restore” na virtualnu mašinu

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Heklanje 81 : crvenkasti milje

Mnogo mi je slatko ispao!
Samo još da smislim šta ću sa nim 🙂

I šema po kojoj sam radila :

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Heklanje 80 : ljubičasti trougaoni šal

Ispalo je sjajno 🙂
Unutrašnjost šala sam radila po jednoj šemi, a čisto ljubičasti obod po drugoj.
Evo kako šal izleda :


I šema po kojoj sam radila :

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