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AD, DNS i NetBIOS, a da i LDAP – Linux, Windows, Heklanje, Kuhinja

Gnft, dakle, pošto se bavim i WIN stvarima, šta je šta ovde???
Primer :
Ime računara (FQDN) => wal.fisch.firma.de
DNS ime domena => fisch.firma.de
Active Directory (AD) domen (drži ga DC server) => meerfisch.fisch.firma.de
NetBIOS ime domena => Seefisch
UPN (User Principal Name) => username@meerfisch.fisch.firma.de

Napomene :
*SVAKI WIN AD domen zahteva DVA imena : DNS ime i NetBIOS ime, i ta imena se ne moraju ni malo međusobno poklapati
*Korisnici češće koriste NetBIOS ime nego AD ime kada se prijavljuju na domen (“domen\username”)
*NetBIOS ime mora biti jedinstveno u celoj mreži

Pojedinačne karakteristike :
DNS :
*Ime domena skoro uvek sadrži tačku (zbog hijerarhije)
*Koristi se i u unutrašnjoj mreži, i na Internetu
*Koristi UTF-8 kodiranje
*Koristi se kao primarni način rezolvovanja u WIN mrežama, ali je NetBIOS i dalje neophodan
*AD domen ime i DNS domen ime NE SMEJU da se poklapaju (AD može biti poddomen DNS-a, što je i MS preporuka)
NetBIOS
*Skoro nikada nema tačku
*Vezano je za pre-WIN2000 OS-ove, ali je i dalje neophodno (???)
*Allows computers that are running Windows NT 4.0 and earlier, or those that are running Windows 95 or Windows 98, to identify Windows 2000 domains
*Koristi se SAMO u unutrašnjoj mreži
*Ograničenje veličine imena je 15 bajta (dakle 15 ASCII karaktera)
*Koristi ASCII kodiranje
*WINS je servis koji NetBIOS imena pretvara u IP adrese, i WINS server je neophodan u iole većoj WIN mreži (i zahteva jako malo resursa, bilo serverskih ili mrežnih). Bez WINS servera NetBIOS imena ne mogu da prođu kroz rutiranu mrežu
*Active Directory NE zamenjuje NetBIOS
*WIN ga je koristio pre DNS-a
*Radi i kroz routed mreže, ali samo sa WINS serverom, bez toga broadcast radi samo na level II
*Every AD Domain also has a NetBIOS Name along with its traditional DNS name. And every computer in your domain will also have a NetBIOS name (even if you turn the NetBIOS names service off). Most of the time this defaults to the first 15 characters of the PCs name
*NetBIOS ime imaju i domen i pojedinačni serveri/klijenti u mreži
*AD koristi NetBIOS imena samo kada iscrpi ostale opcije

A šta je LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) u celoj ovoj priči? Pa samo alat/protokol za upite nad AD bazom :
Active Directory is a database based system that provides authentication, directory, policy, and other services in a Windows environment
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is an application protocol for querying and modifying items in directory service providers like Active Directory, which supports a form of LDAP.

Dodatne razlike :
AD
Microsoft implementacija (vlasnički SW) za directory server
Daje LDAP autentifikaciju uz Kerberos autorizaciju
LDAP
Standard
Protokol za organizovanje i upit nad directory server-om
Koristi TCP/IP stack

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Dobra diskusija.
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