Linux struktura foldera, i neki važni fajlovi


Osnovni folderi standardne Linux strukture :
/bin : All the executable binary programs (file) required during booting, repairing, files required to run into single-user-mode, and other important, basic commands viz., cat, du, df, tar, rpm, wc, history, etc.
/boot : Holds important files during boot-up process, including Linux Kernel.
/dev : Contains device files for all the hardware devices on the machine e.g., cdrom, cpu, etc
/etc : Contains Application’s configuration files, startup, shutdown, start, stop script for every individual program.
/home : Home directory of the users. Every time a new user is created, a directory in the name of user is created within home directory which contains other directories like Desktop, Downloads, Documents, etc.
/lib : The Lib directory contains kernel modules and shared library images required to boot the system and run commands in root file system.
/lost+found : This Directory is installed during installation of Linux, useful for recovering files which may be broken due to unexpected shut-down.
/media : Temporary mount directory is created for removable devices viz., media/cdrom.
/mnt : Temporary mount directory for mounting file system.
/opt : Optional is abbreviated as opt. Contains third party application software. Viz., Java, etc.
/proc : A virtual and pseudo file-system which contains information about running process with a particular Process-id aka pid.
/root : This is the home directory of root user and should never be confused with ‘/‘
/run : This directory is the only clean solution for early-runtime-dir problem.
/sbin : Contains binary executable programs, required by System Administrator, for Maintenance. Viz., iptables, fdisk, ifconfig, swapon, reboot, etc.
/srv : Service is abbreviated as ‘srv‘. This directory contains server specific and service related files.
/sys : Modern Linux distributions include a /sys directory as a virtual filesystem, which stores and allows modification of the devices connected to the system.
/tmp :System’s Temporary Directory, Accessible by users and root. Stores temporary files for user and system, till next boot.
/usr : Contains executable binaries, documentation, source code, libraries for second level program.
/var : Stands for variable. The contents of this file is expected to grow. This directory contains log, lock, spool, mail and temp files.

Najvažniji fajlovi :
/boot/vmlinuz : The Linux Kernel file.
/dev/hda : Device file for the first IDE HDD (Hard Disk Drive)
/dev/hdc : Device file for the IDE Cdrom, commonly
/dev/null : A pseudo device, that don’t exist. Sometime garbage output is redirected to /dev/null, so that it gets lost, forever.
/etc/bashrc : Contains system defaults and aliases used by bash shell.
/etc/crontab : A shell script to run specified commands on a predefined time Interval.
/etc/exports : Information of the file system available on network.
/etc/fstab : Information of Disk Drive and their mount point.
/etc/group : Information of Security Group.
/etc/grub.conf : grub bootloader configuration file.
/etc/init.d : Service startup Script.
/etc/lilo.conf : lilo bootloader configuration file.
/etc/hosts : Information of Ip addresses and corresponding host names.
/etc/hosts.allow : List of hosts allowed to access services on the local machine.
/etc/host.deny : List of hosts denied to access services on the local machine.
/etc/inittab : INIT process and their interaction at various run level.
/etc/issue : Allows to edit the pre-login message.
/etc/modules.conf : Configuration files for system modules.
/etc/motd : motd stands for Message Of The Day, The Message users gets upon login.
/etc/mtab : Currently mounted blocks information.
/etc/passwd : Contains password of system users in a shadow file, a security implementation.
/etc/printcap : Printer Information
/etc/profile : Bash shell defaults
/etc/profile.d : Application script, executed after login.
/etc/rc.d : Information about run level specific script.
/etc/rc.d/init.d : Run Level Initialisation Script.
/etc/resolv.conf : Domain Name Servers (DNS) being used by System.
/etc/securetty : Terminal List, where root login is possible.
/etc/skel : Script that populates new user home directory.
/etc/termcap : An ASCII file that defines the behaviour of Terminal, console and printers.
/etc/X11 : Configuration files of X-window System.
/usr/bin : Normal user executable commands.
/usr/bin/X11 : Binaries of X windows System.
/usr/include : Contains include files used by ‘c‘ program.
/usr/share : Shared directories of man files, info files, etc.
/usr/lib : Library files which are required during program compilation.
/usr/sbin : Commands for Super User, for System Administration.
/proc/cpuinfo : CPU Information
/proc/filesystems : File-system Information being used currently.
/proc/interrupts : Information about the current interrupts being utilised currently.
/proc/ioports : Contains all the Input/Output addresses used by devices on the server.
/proc/meminfo : Memory Usages Information.
/proc/modules : Currently using kernel module.
/proc/mount : Mounted File-system Information.
/proc/stat : Detailed Statistics of the current System.
/proc/swaps : Swap File Information.
/version : Linux Version Information.
/var/log/lastlog : log of last boot process.
/var/log/messages : log of messages produced by syslog daemon at boot.
/var/log/wtmp : list login time and duration of each user on the system currently.

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